UXL Encyclopedia of Science (Vol. 1 A -As) by Rob Nagel

By Rob Nagel

Contains six hundred themes within the lifestyles, earth, and actual sciences in addition to in engineering, know-how, math, environmental technology, and psychology.

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Extra resources for UXL Encyclopedia of Science (Vol. 1 A -As)

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Acids and bases have been known since prehistoric times. Vinegar, for example, is a water solution of acetic acid that has been used for centuries. The first modern definitions for acids and bases were suggested by Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius (1859–1927). Arrhenius proposed that acids be defined as chemicals that produce positively charged hydrogen ions, Hϩ, in water. By comparison, he suggested that bases are compounds that produce negatively charged hydroxide ions, OH–, in water. Acids and bases react with each other in a reaction called neutralization.

A ship looking for underwater objects (such as a submarine) sends out a sound signal. If that sound signal strikes an object, such as the hull of a submarine, it is reflected back to the detecting ship in an echo. The nature of the echo tells an observer the direction and distance of the object (in this case, the submarine hull) that was hit by the wave. Listening devices can also be used to study sounds emitted by an underwater object. Each type of submarine and each type of engine emit distinctive sound patterns that can be picked up and analyzed by listening devices on other ships.

The hearing aid is a system consisting of miniature microphones, amplifiers, and loudspeakers that make it easier for people with hearing difficulties to understand sounds. One of the first large-scale industrial applications of acoustics was sonar. Sonar stands for the phrase sound navigation ranging. S. military during World War I (1914–18) for the detec2 2 U•X•L Encyclopedia of Science, 2nd Edition tion of submarines and continues to be an invaluable device for navies throughout the world. The sonar system is based on readings of sent and received sound waves.

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