U-X-L encyclopedia of science by Rob Nagel

By Rob Nagel

Comprises six hundred themes within the existence, earth, and actual sciences in addition to in engineering, know-how, math, environmental technology, and psychology.

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The pH (potential for hydrogen) scale is used to measure acidity or alkalinity. It runs from 0 to 14. Water has a neutral pH of 7. ) So a pH greater than 7 indicates an alkaline substance while a pH less than 7 indicates an acidic substance. Acid rain can erode structures such as buildings, even if they are made out of stone. ) It is important to note that a change of only one unit in pH equals a tenfold change in the concentration of hydrogen ions. For example, a solution of pH 3 is 10 times more acidic than a solution of pH 4.

The beads above the crossbar are known as heaven beads, and those below the crossbar are called earth beads. Earth beads Historians think that the first abacus consisted of a shallow tray filled with fine sand or dust. Numbers were recorded and erased easily with a finger. The word abacus, in fact, may have come from the Semitic word for “dust,” abq. On an abacus, the heaven beads have five times the value of the earth beads. ) Abrasives heaven bead has a value of five times that of an earth bead below it.

Although exact sources of acid rain are difficult to pinpoint and the actual amount of damage caused by acid deposition is uncertain, it is agreed that acid U•X•L Encyclopedia of Science, 2nd Edition 1 3 Acid rain Acids and bases rain levels need to be reduced. Scientific evidence supports the notion that what goes up must come down, and because of public awareness and concerns about acid rain in many countries, politicians have begun to act decisively in controlling or eliminating human causes of such pollution.

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