Theories of Personality, Ninth Edition by Richard M. Ryckman

By Richard M. Ryckman

Completely up-to-date to incorporate the most recent study references, Richard Ryckman's "theory via thought" method of character conscientiously publications scholars via significant theories in a manner that is helping them enhance a complete figuring out of character. Ryckman's own writing type provides the most important theories in an easy manner aiding readers extra simply distinguish among them. before everything of the textual content, Ryckman presents a framework that defines character, and emphasizes the technology of character (including the interrelation among examine and theory). Then, he introduces each one significant theoretical place with an target assessment of the theorist's uncomplicated techniques and rules. Ryckman concludes through noting the ways that the various theories stimulate extra study efforts, and by means of offering 5 present examine tendencies that experience resulted from the paintings of those previous theorists. the result's a textual content that merges the simplest of vintage and modern study within the box leaving scholars with an excellent operating wisdom of character.

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In Chapter 6, we examine the concepts and principles of Erik Erikson’s psychoanalytic ego psychology. Erikson’s theory systematically extends Freud’s view of the role played by the ego in personality development and functioning. In contrast to Freud, Erikson saw the ego as often operating autonomously from id motivations—as an entity with nondefensive functions that helps people adapt constructively to the demands of their surroundings. Our primary focus is on Erikson’s dynamic theory of ego development and functioning; we pay particular attention to the crises experienced by adolescents as they try to establish their identities, and by young adults who are seeking to establish intimate and long-lasting relationships.

He was a serious boy who excelled in his studies throughout his early schooling. He could repeat verbatim a page in a book he had read and record almost the entire content of scientific lectures after he heard them. He read voraciously the works of great playwrights, poets, and philosophers, including Goethe, Shakespeare, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche. His love of books, in fact, led him to run up a debt at a bookstore that he had no means to settle—an indiscretion for which his father, hard-pressed for money, could find no sympathy (Puner, 1947, pp.

In the traditional and strictest sense, such experiments demand the use of an experimental group, in which the independent variable is manipulated, and a control group, in which it is not; this permits a more accurate assessment of the effects of independent variable manipulation on the dependent variable. By way of example, let us examine an experimental test of a specific theory, namely, Claude Steele’s self-affirmation theory. Major postulates in this theory are that (1) each of us has a unique self, and (2) our goal is to maintain the view of ourselves as adaptively and morally adequate; that is, as competent, good, coherent, stable, and capable of choice and control.

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