The Philosophical Breakfast Club: Four Remarkable Friends by Laura J. Snyder

By Laura J. Snyder

The Philosophical Breakfast membership recounts the existence and paintings of 4 males who met as scholars at Cambridge college: Charles Babbage, John Herschel, William Whewell, and Richard Jones.  spotting that they shared a love of technology (as good nearly as good foods and drinks) they started to meet on Sunday mornings to discuss the country of technological know-how in Britain and the realm at large.  encouraged by means of the nice seventeenth century medical reformer and political determine Francis Bacon—another former pupil of Cambridge—the Philosophical Breakfast membership plotted to result in a brand new clinical revolution.   And to a awesome volume, they succeeded, even in methods they by no means intended.
 Historian of technology and thinker Laura J. Snyder exposes the political passions, non secular impulses, friendships, rivalries, and love of knowledge—and power—that drove those amazing men.  Whewell (who not just invented the observe “scientist,” but additionally based the fields of crystallography, mathematical economics, and the technology of tides), Babbage (a mathematical genius who invented the fashionable computer), Herschel (who mapped the skies of the Southern Hemisphere and contributed to the discovery of photography), and Jones (a curate who formed the technology of economics) have been on the leading edge of the modernization of technology.
This soaking up narrative of individuals, technology and ideas  chronicles the highbrow revolution inaugurated by means of those males, one who keeps to mildew our knowing of the realm round us and of our position inside of it.  Drawing upon the voluminous correspondence among the 4 males over the fifty years in their paintings, Laura J. Snyder indicates how friendship labored to spur the boys directly to better accomplishments, and the way it enabled them to rework technology and aid create the fashionable international.

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Extra resources for The Philosophical Breakfast Club: Four Remarkable Friends Who Transformed Science and Changed the World

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At Yale Blackburn came to know Joan Steitz, who along with her husband, Tom, was now an assistant professor in Yale’s Molecular Biochemistry and Biophysics Department, but they never discussed the discrimination Steitz had encountered at the MRC and during her subsequent job search. )12 “We talked about science,” Blackburn said. One of Gall’s Gals 43 For Blackburn, preserving this cherished freedom to focus on the work meant resolutely shutting one’s eyes to evidence that gender could be a handicap, just as she denied other obstacles.

This research would demonstrate that chorismate mutaseprephenate dehydratase carries out two of the sequential chemical steps (reactions) in building up an amino acid rather than just one, as is typical for enzymes; a previous study had identified just one other enzyme with this unusual property. Quantitative biochemical analysis of this purified enzyme provided a means of understanding how it carried out any of the steps for biosynthesis of the amino acid phenylalanine. Blackburn assayed for the enzyme’s activity in order to purify it from extracts of bacterial cells and then set out to determine its mass by analyzing its behavior under a purification process known as electrophoresis.

Blackburn was still at liberty to lose herself in her work. For her, a feeling of awe for the mystery of life, symbolically embodied in the “secret code” of the genes, was wedded to 34 Chapter 2 curiosity and a methodical effort to dismantle that mystery. She trusted her passion for her work and the excellent training she had received at the MRC to open doors for her in the future. And because Sanger had assigned Blackburn an approach to sequencing that no one else in the lab was trying, she felt shielded from the intense rivalry among the postdocs, who aligned in different clusters to compete to derive the best method for sequencing DNA directly.

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