By Christopher Pollitt, Sandra Van Thiel, Vincent Homburg
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Extra info for The New Public Management in Europe: Adaptation and Alternatives
Politicians exercised influence by political appointments or dismissals of top officials, and by creating their own ministerial Public Management Reforms in France, Italy and Spain 37 cabinets. Most importantly politicians had circumvented the rigid civil service by setting up a parallel administration of public bodies and agencies. Top officials were well aware of this deadlock. Distrust of politicians, sabotage, and extremely legalistic behaviour were the result. In return for absolute job and career security top officials have lost all power and influence.
Top officials were well aware of this deadlock. Distrust of politicians, sabotage, and extremely legalistic behaviour were the result. In return for absolute job and career security top officials have lost all power and influence. Policy-making is not carried out by officials. Preparation of legislation is done in the ministerial cabinets. Officials only perform executive routine work, yet even that can be sabotaged. Many laws and acts are not implemented and executed by the administration. In order to realize its political plans and policies the government mainly uses the instrument of legislation.
In comparison to the relative success of New Public Management (NPM) reforms in Anglo-Saxon countries, France shows more modest examples of that type of reform and Italy and Spain are relative ‘failures’ in terms of NPM reforms. One of the explanations for this difference is that Anglo-Saxon state models differ from continental European legal state traditions, such as reflected in the Napoleonic model (Wunder, 1995). France forms its origin and Italy and Spain have adopted the Napoleonic model.