By Tarondeau Jean-Claude Agid Philippe
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Additional resources for The Management of Opera: An International Comparative Study
The New York Metropolitan Opera is apparently more conventional and the Munich Bayerischer Staatsoper more innovative, but this observation requires conﬁrmation across several seasons. The only institutions that totally escape the 50:30:20 per cent rule are the festivals, which often practise thematic programming and follow totally different logics than the risk-reducing reasoning applicable to the opera houses, especially the largest ones. Dividing opera houses into three groups based on this criterion of alignment with the classics, we observe that the most innovative houses put on more new productions and fewer revivals than the 22 The Management of Opera more conventional houses, in smaller capacity theatres.
Three groups of operas are identiﬁed: the “classics” also called “warhorses”, “evergreens” or “blockbusters” are the 10 per cent most often staged, which account for 50 per cent of performances; the “rarities” or the 60 per cent least frequently performed; and between the two, the “possible”, which represent 30 per cent of operas and 30 per cent of performances. 2. The distribution of the programmed operas between the three groups – the classics, the possibles and the rarities, representing 50 per cent, 30 per cent and 20 per cent of performances, respectively – is similar to the results observed for the Opéra National de Paris over the period 1996–2009.
6, opera houses are classiﬁed according to their physical capacity. 6 Theatre size or physical capacity in seats number Over 2,000 seats 1,300–2,000 seats Less than 1,300 seats New York City Met. Opera Chicago Lyric Dallas Los Angeles San Francisco San Diego Seattle Montreal Vancouver New York City Opera Detroit Houston Miami London ENO Paris National Opéra Barcelona Vienna Staatsoper London Royal Opera Moscow Bolschoï Santa Fe Munich Washington Toronto Milan Scala Paris Champs Elys´ees Berlin Deutsche Warsaw, Wielki Salt Lake City St Petersburg Madrid Real Copenhagen Hamburg Cardiff WNO Amsterdam Rome Turin Regio Leeds Opera North Geneva Aarhus Naples Stuttgart Berlin Staatsoper Vienna Volksoper Frankfurt Dresden Lyon Helsinki Colonge Düsseldorf/Duisbourg Graz Leipzig Berlin Komische Toulouse Brussels Monnaie Zurich Moscow SN Dachencko Strasbourg Mannheim Oslo Antwerp Bologna Rostov Nuremberg Prague Statni Lausanne Mainz Athens Tallinn Heidelberg Opera Houses: Order and Diversity 29 As we shall see, the theatre capacity is one of the factors explaining the differences between opera houses’ ﬁnancial performances (selfgenerated income, full cost) and physical performances (seat occupancy rates).