By Herald, Naheed Nenshi
The Flood of 2013 chronicles an unforgettable summer time of indignant rivers, extraordinary flooding, and indisputable human spirit. This e-book appears at how the catastrophe irrevocably replaced southern Alberta and its humans. within the face of catastrophe, Albertans confirmed their real grit and rose above adversity — similar to their ancestors did for generations ahead of them. The flood begun in southern Alberta on June 20 and resulted in 4 deaths, billions of greenbacks in harm, and greater than 100,000 humans fleeing their houses to flee raging waters. greater than eighty usher in reporters — photographers, writers, editors, videographers, researchers, and electronic manufacturers — helped to relate the story of the flood. utilizing their phrases and photographs, this beautiful quantity captures not just the devastation and destruction of the flood but in addition the emergence of heroes and heartfelt moments. friends helped associates. Strangers helped strangers. And Albertans vowed to get well, come hell or excessive water.
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Additional info for The Flood of 2013: A Summer of Angry Rivers in Southern Alberta
Fig. 8. 5 Basic Equations of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer 45 According to the HLR theory, the inner layer depth linner which can be calculated from linner = 2k 2L / ln(linner / z0), is usually much higher than the saltation layer. The velocity profile in this layer follows logarithmic law, while the friction velocity u* is not equal to the inflow friction velocity u*0, but substituted by another value with taking into account of the local disturbance instead.
34) At the upper boundary of the saltation layer, the turbulence shear stress is determined by the outer flow field, and is generally taken as τ 0. It can be inferred from Eqs. 34 that τ a + τ s = τ 0, so u ∂u 1 τ0 −τ s = A *a = . 35) According to the contribution of the Sauermann et al. 36) where Hs is the thickness of mean saltation. If the value of z0 is properly attained, the continuity of the flow field’s velocity outside the saltation layer can be assured. In addition, the analytic expression of the velocity in the wind-blown sand flux was also given by Raupach (1991).
11), to form the so-called Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. Though practical, the closed RANS model is not universal since Reynolds stress mainly originates from the large-scale fluctuation and its properties are closely related to the boundary condition of the flow. In other words, there does not exist a uniform model which can be applied to all complex flows. As far as computational complexity is concerned, the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model lies between the DNS and the RANS model.