By Darren Shickle (auth.), Ruth Chadwick, Darren Shickle, Henk Ten Have, Urban Wiesing (eds.)
This selection of essays represents the paintings produced during a three-year venture funded by way of the fee of the eu groups below the Biomed I programme, at the ethics of genetic screening, entitled 'Genetic screening: moral and philosophical views, with particular connection with multifactorial diseases'. the fast identify of the venture used to be Euroscreen, thereafter often called Euroscreen I, within the gentle of the truth that a moment venture on genetic screening was once hence funded. The undertaking used to be multinational and multidisciplinary, and had as its targets to envision the character and volume of genetic screening programmes in several eu international locations; to examine the social coverage reaction to those advancements in numerous nations; and to discover the applicability of normative moral frameworks to the problems. The undertaking used to be led by means of a center team who had oversight of the venture and contributors of that have acted as editors for this quantity. Darren Shickle edited the 1st part; Henk ten Have the second one; Ruth Chadwick and concrete Wiesing the 3rd and ultimate half. the quantity opens with an summary of genetic screening and the foundations to be had for addressing advancements within the box, with specific connection with the Wilson and Jungner ideas on screening. the 1st of the 3 significant sections thereafter comprises papers at the state-of-the-art in several nations, including a few research of social context and policy.
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In some of them there is a well elaborated counselling team which offer both genetic counselling and fundamental research. Until now most of the patients find their way to those university centres for human genetics by referral from their physician, by one of the patient associations or by referral from smaller hospitals. Everyone may freely ask for genetic counselling and patients only have to pay a small part (£7) of the real costs (£200) for the genetic tests. In principle there are no special conditions or any barriers for consultation and diagnosis.
The gene frequency of cystic fibrosis in Eastern and Southern Europe is slightly lower, which means that there is a weaker case for cystic fibrosis screening. As we understand the genetics of multifactorial diseases there will be an exponential increase in genetic testing. For example 1 in 12 women in the UK develop breast cancer at some point during their lifetime: in 1989 there were 27,768 women were registered as being diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of the breast and in 1995 there were 12,543 deaths from breast cancer.
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