The Basics of S and S-Plus by Andreas Krause

By Andreas Krause

S-PLUS is a robust instrument for interactive facts research, growing graphs, and imposing custom-made workouts. Originating because the S language of AT&T Bell Laboratories, its smooth language and adaptability make it attractive to facts analysts from many clinical fields. This booklet explains the fundamentals of S-PLUS in a transparent variety at a degree compatible for individuals with little computing or statistical wisdom. not like the S-PLUS manuals, it isn't complete, yet as an alternative introduces crucial rules of S-PLUS by utilizing many examples. every one bankruptcy additionally encompasses a selection of routines that are observed by way of absolutely worked-out recommendations and special reviews. the amount is rounded off with functional tricks on how effective paintings might be played in S-PLUS. The publication is well-suited for self-study and as a textbook.

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However, you should be aware of it in case such precision is important. The magnitude of such errors may vary from machine to machine. 3 You have to be a little careful with the different functions used for truncating, especialIy if you have both positive and negative numbers. Here is a little summary of what the functions do. 4. HopefulIy they also match your predictions. 4. 8 3 4 3 4 The floor and ceiling functions are a little confusing if you have negative numbers because the next lower and next higher integers are the reverse of what you expect.

766667 Notice that the items in the matrix join are not sorted. Values in a single vector may be sorted directly using the sort function, as in > sort (join[, 1]) 43 45 47 47 96 96 98 108 However, if you want to sort on more than one variable, it is best to use the order function to get a permutation of the indices that will give the desired ordering when used. The following is a short example of this. 52 4. 950000 We specified first the waiting tirnes and then the durations to the order function so that our new list would be sorted first by waiting tirne and then, in case of a tie, by durat ion.

2 Introduction to Missing Values What would you do in the European Countries example if you didn't know the GDP of Austria and wanted to leave this ceH blank? " If we go back to this example, it is quite easy to change the value to a missing value. frame$GDP Austria NA France 1355 Germany 2075 Switzerland 265 The whole process seems quite straightforward. However, the problem is that certain mathematical functions in S-PLUS either don't work or they give unexpected values when applied to vectors containing missing values (NAs).

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