By Vladimir L. Bychkov, Gennady V. Golubkov, Anatoly I. Nikitin
This ebook provides a suite of studies ready for the convention “Atmosphere, Ionosphere, Safety,” held in Kaliningrad, Russia, in July 2012. It presents the reader perception into the present advancements within the following fields: physics of straightforward techniques; ionosphere dynamics; ball lightning and aerosol buildings; in addition to distant detection of the radioactive and hugely poisonous ingredients. the range of scope provided bargains readers an up to date review of traits, questions and their solutions.
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Additional info for The Atmosphere and Ionosphere: Elementary Processes, Monitoring, and Ball Lightning
Golubkov et al. Fig. 9 Potential energy curves of quasi-molecule A**M pseudo-crossings. They occur at intermediate distances R smaller than the electron wavelength n. In this case, we must take into account the electrostatic interaction describing the polarization of the molecule M by the ion A+. , it is not saved and is not a good quantum number. A detailed study of this situation is given in (Golubkov et al. 2005a, b). 41) for angular momentum L ¼ 0 and L ¼ 1, as well the split-off in the classical turning points of the degenerated Coulomb levels with numbers n + 1 and n, is shown in Fig.
The effect of the solar activity bursts on the stability of satellite navigation systems has been well established in numerous studies. However, the physical mechanisms of this effect do not have a satisfactory explanation. According to (Perov and Kharisov 2010), basic positioning errors are caused by ionosphere dynamics. As previously thought, the main contribution to positioning error is the F layer of the ionosphere, which determines the total electron content in the atmosphere. However, the effects of solar flares and solar activity are most clearly and synchronously manifested in the ionization of D and E ionospheric layers (Brunelli and Namgaladze 1988).
Indeed, at r ~ R ~ n distances, the quasi-classical electron momentum is κv $ 1/nv ( 1. 10) that has no angular dependence on the direction of the nξ vector close to perturbing molecule M. The next important circumstance is that regions of strong nonadiabatic coupling, in which the condition, À Á1=2 κv κ v0 ðLLZ Þ LL, LZ ðLLZ Þ K U nv ðRc Þ À U n 0 ðRc Þ ( À , 0 Á 3=2 vv v π nv nv 0 ð1:43Þ takes place, are situated around pseudo-crossing points Rc ( n20 in the ground vibrational state of the system.