Tenkō: Ideology and Societal Integration in Prewar Japan by Steinhoff

By Steinhoff

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By contrast, civil law coordinates the behavior of tha society’s members toward one another, and thus emphasizes their uniqueness in contribution and interest. Tha sanctions of civil law represent the rectification of men’s wrongs against one another, mending fences in a vast network of interdependence based on human differences. Criminal law is thus more characteristic of traditional social organization, and civil law of modern, ifhile both are essential to a society’s overall integration, the balance betvjeen'the two, end the emphasis on either one in a particular cituation, can shed some light on the modernization problems of the society.

When the Party fraction tried to affect a major policy decision, "opposition would coalesce around an effort to throw out the fraction, and the organization would split* This process took place in the labor movement, the peasant movement, end later the proletarian cultural and political party movements* The overall effect of the JCP on the labor movement in the early twenties was twofold. First, it vastly increased the visibility of labor through political propaganda and organized activities. Second, it forced a split within the labor movement between the pro-Cocsaunist R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner.

The government was not particularly disposed to grant either request, although it recognized the mounting pressures. The Fence Police Law of 1900 still made nearly every aspect of union activity illegal, though its provisions had been less rigidly enforced since the end of World War X. Proposals for universal manhood suffrage had come before the Diet periodically, but never passed. The real power to make such changes lay with the Cabinet and the bureaucracy, and until they needed the cooperation of labor sorely enough there would be no change.

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