Sherpa Architecture by Valerio Sestini

By Valerio Sestini

Длительный период изоляции Непала способствовал сохранению многих памятников традиционного искусства и архитектуры. Однако, такая статическая ситуация, при которой искусство, архитектура, религия и жизненный уклад оставались, по сути средневековыми, резко изменилась в конце 1950-х с восстановлением монархии и открытием страны для посещения. За двадцать лет изменения ускорились и коснулись всего Непала, и особенно Катманду. Правительство Непала, ощущая потребность защитить или, по крайней мере, сделать опись своего культурного наследия, до того, как изменения стали радикальными, обратилось к ЮНЕСКО, а ЮНЕСКО, в свою очередь, мобилизовало поддержку международного сообщества для выполнения программы сохранения памятников. Эта книга, подготовленная итальянскими архитекторами - одно из средств, с помощью которых архитектурные традиции Непала были зарегистрированы для потомства. В книге описывается природная среда, повлиявшая на особенности непальской архитектуры и методы строительства, особенности жилых и религиозных построек. В отношении последних дана развернутая глава, посвященная происхождению, разнообразию форм и их символике.Образцы сканов:

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Although it closely resembles Tengpoche in other respects, the stone-paved base is not to be found in the gompa at Pangpoche. At the bottom of the porticoes, on either side of the main front of the Iha-khang, are two small doors through which pilgrims enter and leave the forecourt while circumambulating the monastery. As in former monasteries in Tibet, rows of prayer-wheels are set in a long niche in the massive right wall of the main building; these are turned by pilgrims while performing the rite of circumambulation, Unlike Tengpoche, there are no prayer-wheels at the monasteries of Pangpoche and Khumjung, though they are to be found along the wall by the path leading to the monastery at Namche Bazar.

A form of architecture in Khumbu inspired by the chorten is the free-standing gateway. Three of them are to be found near the villages of Namche Bazar (Plate 6) and Khumjung, and the monastery of Tengpoche. The gateways are clearly of Tibetan origin, as Plate 6 The chorten and free-standing gateway at Namche Bazar . 48 they are not uncommon there, though they differ from those in Khumbu in that they are surmounted by a chorten proper. As a rule, the mandala and deities of the Buddhist pantheon are represented on the underside of the lintel.

These range from gatherings held by monks to religious ceremonies such as the Mani Rimdu dances. ’ I. For a description of Tibetan monasteries at the turn of the century, see Sven Hedin, Tram-Himalaya, London, Macmillan, 1910. 58 The portico enclosing the forecourt at Tengpoche was demolished and rebuilt in 1975. The survey made of it since it was rebuilt is therefore of documentary value. However, photographs of the monastery taken by Tilman in 19501 show that the portico had been considerably altered prior to being demolished in 1975.

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