By John W. Wick
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Extra info for School-Based Evaluation: A Guide for Board Members, Superintendents, Principals, Department Heads, and Teachers
This particular comparison might involve a good implementation of peer tutoring compared to horrendous implementations of the other three (see Wick, 1985). This second caution leads back to the fourth step in the evaluate-yourinstruction process. In this step, the person in charge was asked to delineate what s/he believed was the mechanism whereby the desired type of student growth occurs. It is known that results of programs implemented under the same generic heading vary widely. The variation in outcomes is due 42 SCHOOL-BASED EVALVAnON to a reason; it is more than randomness.
For the same learning event and an agreed-upon mechanism whereby growth occurs, how do different schools approach the process question? Environments differ. A combination of content, organization, and student/teacher behaviors which is appropriate for one place may not be appropriate for another. But these are empirical questions. Are the two THE EVALUATE-YOUR-INSTRUCTION PROCESS 25 process approaches to the same learning event equally productive? All other things being equal (time alloted, for example) that depends on the outcomes, and that leads to step 6, dealing with measurement issues.
Formative and summative are terms usually used in tandem; formative used to depict measures taken during instruction, summative to depict measures taken when the learning event has ended. Outcomes, as used here, goes a little further than the usual meaning of summative. An outcomes measure might be gathered long after the learning event has ended. Summative measurement, as the word implies, is a totalling up. The interpretation is usually, "That's the end. The slate is clean. " Hopefully, by defining learning events more realistically, the interrelated nature of "courses" will receive closer attention.