By Richard Robinson, Bent Thagesen
Highway Engineering for improvement offers a accomplished description of the making plans, layout, building and upkeep of roads in constructing international locations.
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Desk of content material :ForewordAcknowledgementsAbstractKey MessagesExecutive Summary1. history Report2. Key Findings of section I Study3. Mandate, Scope, and enterprise of the Work4. Epoxy Asphalt: trying out and try out Results5. excessive functionality Cementitious fabric: trying out and try out Results6. functionality evaluate and Extrapolation of Results7.
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3. Urban poverty is more likely to be defined in terms of individual poverty than at the community level. 2 Measuring poverty Poverty is measured conventionally by the income or expenditure level that can sustain a bare minimum standard of living. The ‘poverty line’ sets the measure of absolute poverty, and an upper limit of US$370 a year (US$1 per day in 1985 purchasing power dollars) has been used as the ‘poverty line’ (World Bank 2000). People whose consumption falls below this level are considered to be ‘poor’.
People whose consumption falls below this level are considered to be ‘poor’. A lower poverty line of US$275 is also used, and those below this level are considered to be ‘very poor’. However, the actual values used are country-specific. Other quantitative indicators of poverty are also used. UNDP have included a ‘human poverty index’ (HPI) within their HDI, described earlier. This attempts to shift the focus of poverty from income deprivation to capability deprivation and Community and individual poverty Quantitative indicators of poverty Other quantitative indicators 12 Peter Broch et al.
The implications of these theories for the road sector are now discussed. First, the evolution of road sector development is considered. After independence, significant investments were made constructing new trunk roads. This focus was dictated by the then prevailing development strategy of rapid industrialization. During the 1960s, the International Development Association (the concessional loan organization within the World Bank Group) spent 30 per cent of its total investments on transport infrastructure, mostly trunk roads.