Renaissance and Reformation, Biographies, Volume 2, L - Z by Peggy Saari; Aaron Saari

By Peggy Saari; Aaron Saari

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Initially, his protest fell on deaf ears, since the archbishop of Mainz was sharing the profits of indulgence sales with the pope. Had someone not translated the “Ninety-Five Theses” from Latin (the language used in all formal communications) into German, they might have gone unnoticed. With the aid of the recently invented printing press, the translation appeared throughout Germany. The theses were thus made available to theologians, scholars, and anyone else who could read German. Called before Diet of Worms Although Luther had directly challenged the authority of the pope, Leo X did not move immediately to silence him.

Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is worthless unless it produces various outward mortifications [humiliations] of the flesh. 7. God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him submissive to his vicar, the priest. 4. The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of self, that is, true inner repentance, until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. 8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying.

Instead he turned more and more to scientific observation (see accompanying box). In 1513 the French were temporarily driven out of Milan and Leonardo moved to Rome. He received no other commissions, however, and at the end of 1516 he left Italy forever. He spent the last three years of his life at Amboise, France, in the small residence of Cloux (later called Clos-Lucé), near the summer palace of the king of France, Francis I (1494–1547; see entry). Given the title of Premier peintre, architecte et méchanicien du Roi (first painter, architect, and mechanic of the King), Leonardo lived as an honored guest of Francis I.

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