By Ilias Vardavas, Frederic Taylor
Radiation thought and measurements are on the center of the weather swap debate. This new ebook describes intimately the elemental physics utilized in radiative move codes which are a key a part of weather prediction types. the fundamental rules are prolonged to the atmospheres of the Earth and the opposite planets, illustrating the greenhouse impact and different radiation-based phenomena at paintings. a number of chapters take care of the ideas and measurements for tracking the Earth's radiation funds and therefore monitoring worldwide swap and its results. distant sensing tools on satellite tv for pc and the speculation of distant sensing also are coated. The e-book is the 1st finished new e-book on atmospheric radiation in additional than a decade, and the 1st to hyperlink the theoretical and experimental points of the topic to the modern weather challenge.
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Extra info for Radiation and Climate
2 Carbon dioxide sequestering Carbon dioxide is sequestered from the atmosphere both by the oceans, the land surface and the biosphere. Carbon dioxide is very soluble in the oceans due to carbonate chemistry. The total dissolved CO2 in the oceans is about ﬁfty times that in the atmosphere and the rate of uptake is limited by vertical mixing. However, in the upper oceanic layers where mixing occurs down to about 100 m due to winds, the total mass of inorganic carbon dissolved as CO2 is about equal to that in the atmosphere.
The scale bar on the left indicates a change of ±100 mm. (Source: IPCC 2001) based on a range of scenarios for projected changes in atmospheric composition. All are based on runs or integrations of atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), the results of which apply to spatial scales of hundreds of kilometres and larger (see Chapter 11). Some of the simulations also included the eﬀects of ozone and/or the indirect eﬀects of aerosols, but most did not attempt 26 THE CLIMATE SYSTEM to include the less well understood eﬀects arising from land-use changes, mineral dust, black carbon, etc.
3 is a summary of the changes to the climate system that have occurred in the twentieth century, as recorded by the IPCC. Most striking are the dramatic increases in the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 and N2 O that have occurred since pre-industrial times. While tropospheric ozone has also increased, the abundance of the same gas in the stratosphere has decreased, most signiﬁcantly between 1970 and 2000. 2 ◦ C over the twentieth century, accompanied by a mean sea level rise of about 1–2 mm. The Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness have declined, while El Ni˜ no events have become more frequent, persistent and intense, particularly during the last 20–30 years.