Quantitative and statistical research methods : from by William E. Martin

By William E. Martin

"Quantitative and Statistical study tools deals a advisor for psychology, counseling, and schooling scholars within the use of facts and study designs, mixed with advice on utilizing SPSS during their study. every one bankruptcy covers a study challenge, taking the coed via choosing study questions and hypotheses; choosing, classifying, and operationally defining the research variables;  Read more...

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Additional resources for Quantitative and statistical research methods : from hypothesis to results

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Type in 15 beside Degrees of freedom: . 05 next to Probability level: . click on Calculate! 13144955. 05 with 15 df (Npairs 2 1, 16 2 1 ¼ 15). 3. 131, so the null hypothesis is rejected and we conclude that there is a significant difference between the pretest and posttest self-compassion scores. The pretest X pre ¼ 71:75 and the posttest X post ¼ 97:88. Since a high score represents higher self-compassion, we conclude that there was a significant gain in self-compassion following the mindfulness treatment.

1 refers to the decisions facing a researcher to reject or fail to reject a null hypothesis related to a particular study. Foundational to the statistical hypothesis testing process is an understanding that when we reject or fail to reject a null hypothesis we never know absolutely if our decision was correct, because we are using probability as the basis of our decision. We want to make a tenable decision based on a high degree of probability that our decision is correct. We can conceptualize the correctness of our decision by comparing the possible study decisions about the null to the hypothetical actual truth (theoretical) about the null in our study.

Jones and Tukey (2000) proposed using confidence intervals when they are available and recognizing the limitations with traditional NHST. Jones and Tukey (2000) also proposed another conclusion-making process, emphasizing that a researcher should assess the sample data and entertain one of three conclusions: “(a) act as if μA À μB . 0; (b) act as if μA À μB , 0; or (c) act as if the sign of μA À μB is indefinite, that is, is not (yet) determined” (p. 412). Again, using our previous example, the first possible conclusion following statistical analysis is that μCBT À μIPT .

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