By Ali Asghar Semsar Yazdi, Majid Labbaf Khaneiki
This publication bargains a prepared resolution should you desire to research extra approximately this attention-grabbing a part of our water historical past and makes obtainable to the broader international the normal wisdom received from construction and retaining qanats for greater than 2,500 years. there's even more the following than a precis of the character and distribution of qanats, and a extra huge trip in the course of the philosophy, tools, instruments, and terminology of qanat layout and digging than formerly assembled.
Where does one start to dig to make sure that the qanat tunnel will stream with water? How are functional concerns of panorama factored into the layout? How are water caliber and discharge measured? How does excavation continue via bedrock and unconsolidated soil and the way is that this wisdom of geology and pedology received? How are vertical wells and tunnels excavated to take care of right air provide, mild, and water circulate? How does one care for specific difficulties like tunnel cave in, the buildup of gasses and vapors, and the pooling of water in the course of development? How are instruments and gauges designed, maintained, and used? How have qanats been integrated into different constructions like watermills, reservoirs, ice homes, and irrigation networks? and the way are qanats wiped clean, prolonged, maintained in the course of the a while, and included into smooth water supplies?
The nice contribution of this paintings is the tale it tells of the ingenuity and sensible abilities of the qanat masters who for hundreds of years and generations have lower an uncountable variety of tunnels via bedrock and alluvium utilizing hand instruments and homespun strategies to difficulties that might vex the main skilled university-trained engineers.
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Additional info for Qanat Knowledge: Construction and Maintenance
These qanats are called “Qomesh” in the region. Reference 31 Qanat Classification Based on water source Based on discharge Based on topography Fluctuating Qanats Constant Simple Qanats QanatSpring Qanat-River Based on Qanat length and depth Short Qanats Mountainous Qanats SemiMountainous Long Qanats Plain Qanats QanatWell Based on Geographical Situation Converging Qanats Parallel Qanats Successive Qanats Fig. 4 Qanat-well: sometimes water pumped by a tube well enters a qanat and mixes up with the qanat water.
Such qanats are locally called “Hava 1 Because of the steep slope of the gound, the qanat tunnel and ground surface intersect soon. 3 Groundwater and Qanat 27 Fig. 4 A typical qanat which extracts the underground streams Fig. 5 A typical “Hava Bin” qanat in mountainous areas Bin”,2 which are very vulnerable to any change in the amount of precipitation. Their discharge reaches its peak after each rainfall and drops to its minimum at the end of summer. Therefore these qanats have ﬂuctuations throughout a year.
If the new qanat is to be built in a soft soil, it should lie at least 1500 m away from the qanats nearby, and in a hard soil this distance is 1000 m (Semsar Yazdi 2010: 312). In an ancient book written by Karaji,2 left from tenth century, there are many ideas very similar to what the qanat masters say even today. In his book he says: “the 2 Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn al Hassan (Husayn) Karaji (953–1029 AD) was a Persian tenth century mathematician and engineer. He is considered one of the founders of Algebra in the Islam world (Rashed, 1970–80).