By Katherine J. Reynolds, Nyla R. Branscombe
This quantity tackles the severe query of no matter if humans swap or whether or not they stay particularly consistent around the lifespan. a lot current literature in psychology has mostly counseled the concept that of balance. certainly, in lots of people’s minds, the individual is known to be set in stone, as a functionality of early socialization and attaining a selected degree of improvement, evolutionary strategies, or characteristics which are hard-wired from the start by way of genes and biology.
However, lately, vital clinical advancements in conception and study about the psychology of swap have emerged. not like the generally held belief of the person as mounted, this learn illustrates how malleable humans are—showing a lot behavioral plasticity. The chapters during this quantity, written by way of students on the state of the art of analysis into the psychology of swap, show off those advancements with the purpose of advancing wisdom of the sphere and inspiring additional study. subject matters addressed comprise mind functionality, cognitive functionality, character, mental wellbeing and fitness, collective motion to accomplish social switch, responses to lifestyles stressors, and political switch. The message is clear—the tradition we are living in, what occurs to us alongside the way in which, and who we predict we're and wish to be, can all swap people.
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Extra resources for Psychology of Change: Life Contexts, Experiences, and Identities
O’Brien, E. , & Hsing, C. (2011). Changes in dispositional empathy in American college students over time: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 180–198. , Raitakari, O. , & Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. (2010). Novelty seeking: Interaction between parental alcohol use and dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III polymorphism over 17 years. FOCUS: The Journal of Lifelong Learning in Psychiatry, 8, 294–300. LeBoeuf, R. , & Bayuk, J. B. (2010). The conflicting choices of alternating selves.
Therefore, even though the sins of the father can be visited upon the children, at least some of these influences can be undone or redeemed by positive environmental factors. Experience-Dependent Effects of Genes 33 Relatively few studies in humans have assessed epigenetic contributions to the relations between stressful events and behavioral disturbances. However, in infants at 3 months of age, maternal depressed/anxious mood during the third trimester of pregnancy was accompanied by greater epigenetic effects with respect to the genes for glucocorticoid receptors (measured in DNA from saliva) coupled with increased salivary cortisol stress responses (Oberlander, Weinberg, Papsdorf, Grunau, Misri, & Devlin, 2008).
Nevertheless, these are not questions that social psychological research has often sought to address. That is because the interest is typically in demonstrating people’s responsiveness to social contextual factors rather than their duration or strength of impact. Many aspects of the environment that have been manipulated are features that people are unaware would affect their subsequent behavior. Indeed, if asked if they were influenced by exposure to such materials, they might even deny having been influenced.