Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste by Sandra Cointreau-Levine

By Sandra Cointreau-Levine

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Additional resources for Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries: The Formal Sector (Urban Management Programme, 13)

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Assuming each windrow pile is turned once weekly over a 7-week period, 1 wheeled loader would handle an incoming waste load of 200 tonnes per day, or serve about 285,000 residents. · Waste-to-energy. Waste-to-energy incineration systems are not technically viable for most developing countries, because the refuse, on an as received basis (wet basis), is not sufficiently high in calorific value to sustain incineration. Refuse of least 1,300 kilocalorie per kilogram of ''lower heating value" needs to exist on a year-round basis for incineration without supplemental fuel.

33 Over the short term, the role of government as employer needs to be weighed as part of the private sector participation decision, given the recognition that the direct and indirect costs of high unemployment are significantly borne by government. Nevertheless, for the long term, it generally makes more economic sense to reduce the roles and to pay appropriate severance pay to the government workers who are asked to leave their jobs. 34 In many developing countries, solid waste workers in the private sector are paid much less than government workers, enjoy fewer vacation days, and receive fewer benefits (11, 20, 29,58).

When the span of management is too high, the supervision of workers is inadequate, and worker productivity is low. When the span of management is too low, the supervision of workers is adequate, but supervisor productivity is low. Both extremes lead unnecessarily to high costs. Ideally, to obtain low-cost service, the span of management for solid waste collection systems should be about one supervisor for every four vehicle crews required for solid waste collection (56). In developing countries, most municipal solid waste agencies have a span of management of about one supervisor to every twenty to fifty solid waste collection crews.

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