Personality theories : an introduction by Barbara Engler

By Barbara Engler

The 7th variation of character Theories keeps its sound culture of supplying exact and thorough assurance through an simply available textual content improved by means of pedagogical good points and a spotlight on serious pondering. character Theories is designed either to provide an explanation for the key character theories and to stimulate severe puzzling over them. every one bankruptcy makes a speciality of one conception or workforce of theories and offers short biographies that make clear how the theories have been shaped. Engler additionally presents standards for comparing every one concept and cites present study bearing on that thought, as well as integrating multicultural and gender-related matters in the course of the textual content.

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Both objective and subjective knowledge refer to empirical data. The difference between them lies in the position of the observer. In objective knowledge, the position is I-it: the self is looking outward on the world as object. In subjective knowledge, the position is I-me: the self is looking inward on its own experience as the object. Reports that are concerned with the object of experience, or extrospective data, are relatively simple to verify. We merely indicate the conditions under which the observation may be repeated.

His mother, twenty-one at the time of her favored first son’s birth, was loving and protective. Freud’s father, Jacob, was forty-one, almost twice as old as his wife. Jacob was stern and authoritarian, but his son respected him. Only later, through his self-analysis, did Freud realize that his feelings toward his parents were mixed with fear and hate, respect and love. When Sigmund was eleven months old, a brother, Julius, was born, but he died eight months later. A sister, Anna, arrived when Freud was two and a half.

This helps us to understand why a scientist never claims that the The Art of Personality Theories 15 information produced by scientific methods is ultimately true. Scientific hypotheses are tentative and need to be discarded when evidence contradicts them. Although scientific methods cannot be said to yield ultimate truth, they do provide a wealth of useful information to assist us in living in the everyday world. It is to our advantage, therefore, to act as if the conclusions from our scientific methods are true.

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