By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Fridtjof Unander, Michael Ting
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The second bar shows the impact of energy intensities, while the third bar gives the changes in actual energy use. The average annual percentage change in actual energy use is equal to the difference between the two first bars. Before 1982 energy intensity declines were strong, leading to enough savings to avoid increased energy demand in all three regions. In the United States and EUR-8 actual energy use fell considerably between 1973 and 1982 due to the intensity reductions. On the other hand, Japan had the highest savings rate but also the strongest growth in energy service demand.
This helps both to determine where policies can be most effective and to monitor progress once they have been implemented. Sectors and Data Analysed This study considers energy use in the manufacturing, household, service, passenger and freight transport sectors in the categories shown in Figure 2-2. It does not cover other industries as data for these activities are scarce. Data definitions in this study are based on the methodology used in the IEA Energy Balances of OECD Countries although there are some important differences.
The share of renewable energies expanded from 4% in 1973 to 6% in 2000. This share is dominated by combustible renewables (55%), hydro (36%) and geothermal (7%). Wind and solar were the fastest growing renewables, yet only accounted for 2% of total renewable supply in 2000. 1. IEA in aggregate figures in this publication refers to those countries that were members of the OECD in1974, and therefore does not include the newer Member countries – Czech Republic, Hungary and Korea. 36 ECONOMY-WIDE TRENDS IN ENERGY USE Final Energy Consumption by Fuel Oil dominates final energy consumption, but electricity is growing the strongest Figure 3-2 Total Final Energy Consumption by Fuel, IEA Countries 80 70 Oil 50 Gas 40 Electricity 30 Coal 20 Biomass 10 District Heat 00 20 98 19 96 19 94 19 92 19 90 19 19 88 86 19 84 19 82 19 80 19 19 19 19 78 76 0 74 Total final energy (exajoules) 60 2000 1973 Electricity 20% Electricity 12% Biomass 3% Oil 58% Oil 53% District Heat 1% Biomass 3% Coal 3% Coal 8% Gas 19% Gas 20% Total final energy consumption (TFC) for IEA countries is even more dominated by oil than TPES.