By Foucault Michel
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This is the alternation that the question of evil continued to repeat, both in theology and metaphysics, until the end of the modern era. It oscillated constantly between dualism and its neutralization, between a vision of evil as a substance and a vision that denied its reality. Only occasionally did philosophy escape from this alternation, by arguing for a moral evil that implies an irreducible freedom. 20 Absolute Demons In his own personal journey, Augustine seems to have foreseen how the possible future solutions would play out.
Listen. I’ve reckoned them all up: a teacher who laughs with children at their God and at their cradle; is on our side. ] is one of us. The juries who acquit The Dostoevsky Paradigm 33 every criminal are ours. ” On these lines, Pyotr Verkhovensky speaks with lucidity about a universal, revolutionary inebriation that now corrupts almost the entirety of the Russian people to their roots. Everywhere he looks, he sees the desire for autonomy, independence, for severing all ties with authority.
W]e must not even be considered responsible for their existence (we cannot be, for since they are implanted in us we are not their authors). 21 Both good acts and bad acts derive from reason and not from the limits of our sensible nature. This means that evil is not reason’s other, it is not its negation, but rather it is that which—within reason—corrupts the upright faculty of the moral judgment. ”23 This implies that there is a subjective principle concealed under the form of the law; and that the moral law—the supreme condition, the force of upright conduct—is subordinate to that subjective principle.