By Ehud Ur
The invention of the adipostatic hormone leptin has reworked our realizing of the neurobiology of urge for food keep watch over and has helped to set up the organic foundation of weight problems. This quantity units out to attract jointly key gains of the valuable results of leptin. Contributions from prime experts within the box comprise experiences of leptin's activities on hypothalamic peptides, the position of leptin in fasting, its results on reproductive functionality, and facts assisting endogenous mind creation of the peptide.
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Extra resources for Neuroendocrinology of Leptin
Future studies will concentrate on the outputs of leptin responsive neurons in the hypothalamus to effector sites such as the autonomic preganglionic neurons and the cerebral cortex. A stepwise elucidation of the anatomic pathways engaged by leptin will enhance our understanding of the physiological significance of this fundamental hormone. Acknowledgment This work was supported by USPHS grants MH56537 and DK53301. Elmquist 36 References 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L, Friedman JM: Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue.
Mercer JG, Moar KM, Hoggard N: Localization of leptin receptor (Ob-R) messenger ribonucleic acid in the rodent hindbrain. Endocrinology 1998;139:29–34. Couce ME, Burguera B, Parisi JE, Jensen MD, Lloyd RV: Localization of leptin receptor in the human brain. Neuroendocrinology 1997;66:145–150. Hakansson ML, Brown H, Ghilardi N, Skoda RC, Meister B: Leptin receptor immunoreactivity in chemically defined target neurons of the hypothalamus. J Neurosci 1998;18:559–572. Smedh U, Hakansson ML, Meister B, Uvnas-Moberg K: Leptin injected into the fourth ventricle inhibits gastric emptying (in process citation).
Food restriction reverses the phase of both the corticosterone and leptin circadian rhythms such that they maintain their inverse relationship . v. leptin administration [61, 83]. These findings suggest that populations of leptin-activated neurons in the VMH innervate the subparaventricular zone, providing an anatomic substrate through which leptin may regulate the secretion of hormones such as corticosterone across the circadian cycle. Moreover, the subparaventricular zone projects densely to the DMH and not to the PVH , so the effects of leptinactivated neurons in the VMH that innervate the subparaventricular zone may ultimately be mediated by projections of the DMH to the PVH (fig.