By J. Keith Struthers, Michael J. Weinbren, Christopher Taggart, Kjell J. Wiberg
And key pointsChapter eight the attention and the breathing Tract Specimen; review; creation; the attention; The ear, nostril, and throat; The reduce breathing tract; Tuberculosis; precis and key issues; bankruptcy nine The Serology Specimen; advent; tips on how to get the main out of the laboratory; Markers of an infection; Screening and backbone of immune prestige; Specimen assortment; Hepatitis viruses; administration of sharps/splash accidents to participants of the general public; precis and key issues; bankruptcy 10 Infections in being pregnant; advent; function of the antenatal clinic.
This concise, hugely illustrated case-based consultant can assist community-based basic care physicians and nurses, and laboratory-based microbiologists, larger comprehend each one other's specifications in gathering and analyzing specimens, and hence to enhance the standard of sufferer care. Read more...
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Additional resources for Medical Microbiology Testing in Primary Care
The organism is usually resistant to the antibiotic. The organism can be susceptible, but there are usually better alternatives; local susceptibility patterns can influence use. 33 The range of activity of some oral antibiotics that can be used in primary care to treat selected gram-positive bacteria. Figures 28 and 30 should be referred to. ) These are general susceptibility patterns; local laboratory information and guidelines must be used in clinical practice. • For MSSA and streptococci, susceptibility to clindamycin here is based on the organism being erythromycin sensitive.
Urine is cloudy. Do NOT send MSU to laboratory. Consider other cause for symptoms. Do urine dipstick test for nitrites and leukocyte esterase. Positive nitrites and leukocyte esterase (+/– protein) = probable UTI, give empirical antibiotic treatment. No need to send MSU to the laboratory Negative nitrites, positive leuko EST = UTI or acute urethral syndrome; consider treating if symptoms severe. MSU should be sent to the laboratory Nitrite, leuko EST, (protein, blood) all negative = UTI very unlikely.
CSU: (No dipstick). Send specimen to the laboratory. Give empirical treatment. Acute uncomplicated UTI. Consider empirical antibiotic treatment (3-day course). ’ Practices/clinics must have training programmes for this. The test must be done on a MSU. Nitrite is produced by bacteria multiplying in the bladder, and although often impractical, the first urine of the day is likely to be the most representative of the infection process in the bladder. High fluid intake with frequent micturition can dilute nitrites in the urine.