By Vincent Lagente, Elisabeth Boichot
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes believed to be keen on many physiological and pathological tactics linked to inflammatory reactions. MMP synthesis and capabilities are regulated via 3 significant mechanisms together with transcriptional activation, post-transcriptional processing, and keep watch over of task by means of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Many phone varieties were pointed out as manufacturers of MMPs and TIMPs in a context of inflammatory methods. MMPs are inquisitive about quite a few inflammatory illnesses, together with breathing, cardiovascular and primary frightened procedure pathologies. This quantity offers new advances within the involvement of MMPs in numerous ailments linked to inflammatory procedures. in addition, the new improvement of selective and non selective inhibitors of MMPs offers new insights within the dating among activation of inflammatory cells and tissue remodelling and advises new healing chances for the therapy of inflammatory ailments.
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Extra resources for Matrix Metalloproteinases in Tissue Remodelling and Inflammation (Progress in Inflammation Research)
Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 1385–1390 Barnes PJ, Shapiro SD, Pauwels RA (2003) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: molecular and cellular mechanisms. Eur Respir J 22: 672–688 Parks WC, Shapiro SD (2001) Matrix metalloproteinases in lung biology. Respir Res 2: 10–19 Yao PM, Buhler JM, d’Ortho MP, Lebargy F, Delclaux C, Harf A, Lafuma C (1996) Expression of matrix metalloproteinase gelatinases A and B by cultured epithelial cells from human bronchial explants. J Biol Chem 271: 15580–15589 Dunsmore SE, Saarialho-Kere UK, Roby JD, Wilson CL, Matrisian LM, Welgus HG, Parks WC (1998) Matrilysin expression and function in airway epithelium.
Interactions with growth factors MMPs also can directly or indirectly affect the activity of cytokines involved in inflammation and airway wall remodelling, such as VEGF and EGF [90, 91]. VEGF signalling may regulate MMP-9 expression in an ovalbumin murine model . Latent TGF-`1 can be activated by MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-12 [81–83]. MMP9 in turn could then modulate TGF-`1 . MMP-1 secreted by hyperplastic smooth muscle cells activates IGF axis . IGF-1 is produced by airway epithelial cells and induces airway smooth muscle cell proliferation through its ability to upregulate MMP-2, an airway smooth muscle mitogen .
Clin Exp Allergy 32: 217–223 Wenzel SE, Balzar S, Cundall M, Chu HW (2003) Subepithelial basement membrane immunoreactivity for matrix metalloproteinase 9: association with asthma severity, neutrophilic inflammation, and wound repair. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111: 1345–1352 Cundall M, Sun Y, Miranda C, Trudeau JB, Barnes S, Wenzel SE (2003) Neutrophilderived matrix metalloproteinase-9 is increased in severe asthma and poorly inhibited by glucocorticoids. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112: 1064–1071 Lee YC, Lee HB, Rhee YK, Song CH (2001) The involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in airway inflammation of patients with acute asthma.