By Philip E. van Beynen (auth.), Philip E. van Beynen (eds.)
Focusing in particular at the administration of karst environments, this quantity attracts jointly the world’s prime karst specialists to supply an important resource for the learn and administration of this targeted actual surroundings. even though karst landscapes hide 12% of the Earth’s terrain and supply 25% of the world’s ingesting water, the source administration of karst environments has in basic terms formerly obtained oblique realization. via a accomplished technique, Karst administration specializes in engineering concerns linked to floor karst reminiscent of quarries, dams, and agriculture, subsurface themes akin to the administration of groundwater, convey caves, cave biota, and geo-archaeology tasks. Chapters that target karst as an built-in process examine IUCN global historical past websites, nationwide parks, coverage and rules, measuring systematic disturbance, info administration, and public environmental schooling. The textual content comprises the main up to date learn from best karst scientists.
This quantity presents very important views for college scholars, educators, geoengineers, source managers, and planners who're attracted to or paintings with this distinct actual landscape.
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Extra resources for Karst Management
F. Beck may initiate the acceleration of the raveling process. Presence of a large void may not be a necessary prerequisite for a cover-collapse sinkhole to form if rapid water level drawdown occurs. The impact of water on sinkhole formation was analyzed by Anikeev (1999) and Sharp (1997, 2003) based on hydrofracturing theory. Anikeev (1999) proposed a simple hydrofracturing criterion that is controlled by the ratio of soil cohesion to the loss of buoyancy. A 3 m drawdown in the water level could cause hydrofracturing in soil with cohesion of 25 kPa.
The design professionals must be prepared to provide foundation alternatives to reduce or eliminate the risk. These alternatives, in general, are regular shallow spread footings with or without soil improvement, rigid mats and grade beams and deep foundations (piles and piers). When the overburden is thin, the preferred choice for settlement-sensitive structures will be shallow footings placed on bedrock or engineered fill over the bedrock. The concern in use of shallow foundations is the potential for significant seepage inflow during excavation, particularly from the shattered or highly weathered limestone.
It consists of compacted clay with a permeability of less than 10-6 cm/s. Thin layers are recommended as the compaction pressure transmitted to the soil decreases with depth. A high degree of compaction breaks down most aggregated or flocculated clay particles and makes them less permeable. Compaction helps to break up the vertical structure of the soil and greatly slow leakage. 2. An inverse aggregate graded filter consists of placing boulders wider than about half the throat opening width into the solution-enlarged fracture to arch across the bottom opening.