Italian Music Incunabula: Printers and Type by Mary Kay Duggan

By Mary Kay Duggan

Musical notation awarded strange demanding situations to the hot craft of printing within the 15th century. Its calls for have been so tricky that the 1st effect of tune from steel variety used to be no longer made until eventually an entire 20 years after the 1st published alphabetic texts. by way of the tip of the century dozens of such fonts had seemed all through Europe. The books that resulted have been frequently outstanding volumes of folio or large-folio measurement, revealed in colours, with woodcut illustrations. Mary Kay Duggan makes a speciality of the technological tactics built in Italy to print track books. She starts off via tracing the heritage and studying the ideas of casting and atmosphere kind and staves. She then identifies, classifies, and examines thirty-eight particular forms. ultimately, the writer has compiled a descriptive bibliography of Italian tune incunabula, together with books containing both revealed song or clean areas for the insertion of manuscript track. Italian track Incunabula marks an enormous improve within the examine of the paleotypography of track. It vastly complements our figuring out of the influence of the printing press on track and the significance of song books within the paintings of early printers. Its meticulous bibliography of over a hundred and fifty incunabula, concordances, and indices will make it the normal reference paintings for lots of future years.

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Italian Music Incunabula: Printers and Type

Musical notation provided strange demanding situations to the recent craft of printing within the 15th century. Its calls for have been so tough that the 1st effect of tune from steel style used to be now not made till a whole 20 years after the 1st published alphabetic texts. by means of the top of the century dozens of such fonts had seemed all through Europe.

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An axiom is built to connect the quantity to its subject, redwood: ƒ all x1 x2 (_quantity(x1) & redwood_NN(x2) → of_in(x1, x2)) This is a weak axiom since the proximity of redwood to quantity in the answer text is not guaranteed. As mentioned for the complex nominal and coordinated conjunction axioms, any proof that uses these axioms should be penalized and ranked lower than those that do not. 3 Evaluation COGEX was implemented and integrated into PowerAnswer and tested on the TREC-2002 evaluation questions.

Figure 3 shows how an integrated answer type hierarchy enhances the recognition of the expected answer type. , Person). Concurrently, the ontology-based hierarchy (shown on the right in Figure 3) addresses domain-specific questions. If the concept asked about in the question is found in any of the ontologies, all its sub-concepts in the ontology become candidate answers. g. ” . The quality of the passages retrieved within the QA system is significantly improved through ontology-based query expansion.

The domain-specific concepts included in the query are selected based on their frequency of occurrence in the collection and relative semantic distance metrics. ” the queries used for passage retrieval are: ƒ without ontology information: (biological AND agents AND Qaeda) ƒ with ontology information: ((biological AND agents) OR (bacterial AND agent) OR (viral AND agent) OR (fungal AND agent) OR (toxic AND agent) OR ... OR botulism OR botulinum OR cholera OR ebola OR lassa OR encephalitis OR marburg OR ...

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