Institutions in Environmental Management: Constructing by Janne Hukkinen

By Janne Hukkinen

This paintings explores the problems of fixing modern environmental difficulties inside of present international associations. It questions directions set out in fresh influential coverage experiences, and indicates new agendas for sustainability, business ecology, and institutional reform. together with case experiences from the united states, Europe and China, this publication investigates quite a lot of environmental difficulties almost immediately confronting specialists world wide.

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Additional info for Institutions in Environmental Management: Constructing Mental Models and Sustainability (Routledge Eui Environmental Policy Series)

Sample text

It is not the empirically verified reality that determines their decisions, as many of them would like to claim, but rather what they perceive to be the reality (Berger and Luckmann 1967; Weick 1969). Furthermore, policy makers must frequently act on incomplete information and process the information they do receive through mental models that can lead to choices that reinforce existing institutions as the only source of stability and certainty – however inadequate or far from optimal, in any sense of the term, those institutions might be (North 1992).

To appreciate how institutional change comes about, we need to understand the informal constraints and their relationship with the formal ones. Since informal institutions are not written down, the only place they are recorded is in individuals’ minds. The closest an analyst can come to the informal rules is by deciphering them from the mental constructs the individuals reveal in their stories. As the case studies illustrate, analysis of the mental models with which individual decision makers and experts make sense of environmental problems also reveals the informal constraints to their thinking.

The position underlying the institutional design recommendations of this study is that the efficiency and the social good of a particular institutional design are defined by the stakeholders who have to tolerate or enjoy the institutions. The criteria for determining the desirability of an institutional set-up are therefore socially defined, and subject to constant argumentation and redefinition. The only thing planners can wish to do is stimulate the creation of institutions that enable the stakeholders to search and find an acceptable consensus on environmental issues, instead of continuing to redefine and disagree on them.

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