Ice and Construction (Rilem Report, 13) by L. Makkonen

By L. Makkonen

This e-book makes a speciality of parts of ice know-how: using ice as a building fabric and the issues brought on by ice to structures. In reference to describing earlier and capability destiny functions of utilizing ice in building, an in depth dialogue at the mechanical houses of ice is given. A cutting-edge description on ice-making equipment, soften safety, equipment and reinforcement of ice with the fabrics are lined.

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Additional info for Ice and Construction (Rilem Report, 13)

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These aspects should be considered individually for each structure and can be studied by small-scale icing experiments (Makkonen and Oleskiw, 1994). THE PHYSICS OF ICING 43 Fig. 8 Smooth curves drawn for the numerical solution of the total collision efficiency E as a function of the nondimensional parameters K and F (from Finstad et al. 1988a). Langmuir and Blodgett (1946) have shown that droplet trajectories and the rime icing process can be described by two dimensionless parameters: the Stokes number K and the Reynolds number Red.

A result of this dimensional analysis is that rime icing can be perfectly simulated, on any scale, providing that the parameters K and Red are kept constant. 17) where is the geometric scale factor. In long-term icing, the similarity of K and Red is not sufficient, because ice shape will not remain correct unless the density of the rime is the same at small scale and full scale. 18) below). 44 ACCRETION OF ICE ON STRUCTURES When scaling down the icing process by keeping K and Red constant, the relationship remains constant also: that is, v0 will scale as V and R as V·dm.

US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Special Report 86–32, 34 pp. Mellor, M. and Swithinbank, C. (1989) Airfields on Antarctic glacier ice. US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 89–21, 97 pp. Heat, (1980) Exchange at surface of built-up ice platform during construction. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 3, 323– 33. , Bourns, M. and Karim, N. (1986) The use of additives in sprayed sea water to accelerate ice structure construction, in Proceedings of International Symposium on Cold Regions Heat Transfer, Edmonton, pp.

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