Fractals in Biology and Medicine: Volume IV (Mathematics and by Gabriele A. Losa (Editor), Danilo Merlini (Editor), Theo F.

By Gabriele A. Losa (Editor), Danilo Merlini (Editor), Theo F. Nonnenmacher (Editor), Ewald R. Weibel (

This quantity is quantity 4 in a chain of lawsuits volumes from the foreign Symposia on Fractals in Biology and medication in Ascona, Switzerland which were encouraged by means of the paintings of Beno?t Mandelbrot trying to expand the techniques in the direction of the lifestyles sciences. It highlights the capability that fractal geometry deals for elucidating and explaining the complicated makeup of cells, tissues and organic organisms both in common or in pathological stipulations.

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19] Wilson, T. , Design of the bronchial tree. Nature 1967; 213:668-669. [20] Weibel, E. R. Morphometry of the human lung. Springer, Berlin 1963. [21] Weibel, E. R. Fractal geometry: a design principle for living organisms. Am J Physiol 1991; 261:L361-L369. , Huxley, V. , Pfeifer, P. Oxygen diffusion through the fractal landscape of the lung. Fractals in Biology and Medicine, vol IV, eds. A. , Birkhäuser, Basel 2005. [23] Katchalsky, A. Biophysics and Other Topics: Selected Papers. Academic Press, NY 1976.

Three similar interdigitating trees (airways, arteries and veins) are closely packed together, to ensure that gas transfer between air and blood occurs with high efficiency. This striking architecture distributes a huge number of gas-exchange units (3 x 108 alveoli in a typical human lung [1]), uniformly within the thoracic cavity. While the biochemistry of gas exchange occurs exclusively at the microscopic level of the alveolar membrane, the efficient accessibility of the alveoli to incoming oxygen is equally important for the performance of the lung, a fact which is often overlooked.

The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San Francisco: Freeman, 1982. , Havlin S. Fractals and Disordered Systems, 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 1996. Sapoval B. Universalités et Fractales. Paris: Flammarion, 1997. Meakin P. Fractals, Scaling, and Growth Far from Equilibrium. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998. In some cases a property may depend on additional structural parameters, such as lacunarity, spectral dimension, or the spectrum of roughness exponents [6]. , Pfeifer P. Nonstandard roughness of terraced surfaces.

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