By Colin D. Johnston
This e-book summarizes and simplifies the result of a substantial physique of analysis and functional event with a variety of fiber-reinforced cementitious composites.
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Additional info for Fiber-reinforced cements and concretes
5 times the first-crack deflection) divided by the area up to the first-crack deflection. 5 times the first-crack deflection. For ease of understanding, and as a reference for level of performance, it should be recognized that a load-deflection relationship showing perfectly elastic-plastic behaviour, typical of mild steel, corresponds to I20=20 and R10,20=100. 4 MPa matrix approximates this behavior, while the other curves depict inferior performance (Fig. 24). Flexural performance evaluation using ASTM C 1018 criteria and other proposed alternatives is discussed further in Chapter 7.
Engineers who have no specialist expertise with fiber-reinforced cements or concretes have difficulty understanding the significance of toughness in relation to structural performance, and a preference has developed for the use of residual strength as the criterion for judging post-crack composite performance because its significance is more obvious. For fiber-reinforced concretes, ASTM Standard C 1018 (ASTM, 1994) Composite Behaviour Under Load 51 addresses the problem by defining parameters, such as I20 and R10,20 (Fig.
9) (Wang, Li and Backer, 1990). In general, for these comparatively small fiber volume fractions below the critical Vf(cr), the stress-strain curves show either a gradual decrease in stress following the first crack, sometimes termed strainsoftening behaviour (Fig. 8 for hooked or enlarged-end fibers), or in varying degrees a sudden decrease in stress after first crack followed by further strain development at nearconstant load for smooth fibers without improved end anchorage (Fig. 9). Whether tests using artificial stiffening are relevant in practice depends on the nature of the application.