By Alexander of Aphrodisias
Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics has been a crucial textual content in ethical philosophy because the fourth century BC. the moral difficulties attributed to Alexander of Aphrodisias - the top historic commentator on Aristotle - not just exhibits us how Aristotle's paintings was once mentioned in Alexander's personal day (c. 2 hundred advert) yet bargains interpretations and insights which are worthwhile of their personal correct. subject matters mentioned comprise excitement and misery, ethical advantage, the standards for judging activities voluntary, the advance of ethical knowing, and where in ethics of application, political group and a feeling of disgrace.
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38 From 'some instrument has no opposite' and 'wealth has an opposite', two particular premisses in the second figure, no conclusion follows. 39 That the universe is limited and yet does not border on anything outside it is argued in Quaest. 12. 34 35 24 Problem 4 40 or best through it, all the things with this property will be instruments, and this will apply to all instruments. Thus, if this is a property of wealth - for it is through this that the good man [performs] activities of liberality and magnificence - then [wealth] will41 be an instrument for the good man; for it is on the basis of what is included in the essence of an instrument that we judge what 15 is an instrument, as in the case of all other things, and not on the basis of its accidents.
The end of man is to become a good man; man is for the sake of this. And to become good is to possess the virtues of a man. But it would not be possible for a man to possess the virtues, if he were not first of all a man; so man is for the sake of the acquisition of the virtues, not the virtues [for the sake of] man. It is for this reason, too, that the man who has acquired the virtues is better than the one who is without them. 110 For we do not acquire them like a piece of land or a slave or a house [sc.
So, while all distress is an evil, those among pleasures which are in accordance with nature, and pleasures in the proper sense, are opposite to distress as being goods, while those that are contrary to nature are [opposite to distress] as [one] evil to 5 another. 6. 67 If all pleasure consisted in bodily relaxation, pain would be opposite to it; but since pleasure is a certain relaxation of the soul which does not occur through the body 10 or in respect of the body alone, it will not be pain that is the opposite 64 The discrepancy between '[activities] contrary to nature' (tais, feminine) and '[things] in accordance with nature' (tois, masculine) is present in the MSS; Bruns in his apparatus (but not his text) suggests emendation of the former, while the Aldine edition and Spengel emended the latter.