By Henri Bergson, Edwin E. Slosson
Prior to the sunrise of heritage mankind used to be engaged within the research of dreaming. The clever guy one of the ancients was once preeminently the interpreter of desires. the power to interpret effectively or plausibly used to be the fastest street to royal prefer, as Joseph and Daniel discovered it to be; failure to provide delight during this admire resulted in banishment from court docket or loss of life. whilst a pupil laboriously interprets a cuneiform pill dug up from a Babylonian mound the place it has lain buried for 5 thousand years or extra, the possibilities are that it'll end up both an astrological treatise or a dream publication. If the previous, we glance upon it with a few indulgence; if the latter with natural contempt. For we all know that the examine of the celebs, even though undertaken for egocentric purposes and pursued within the spirit of charlatanry, led at size to actual technology, whereas the research of desires has proved as unprofitable because the dreaming of them. Out of astrology grew astronomy. Out of oneiromancy has grown - nothing.
That at the very least used to be considerably actual as much as the start of the current century. Dream books in all languages persevered to promote in affordable variants and the interpreters of goals made a good or, at any cost, a comfy residing out of the poorer periods. however the psychologist not often paid realization to desires other than by the way in his learn of images, organization and the rate of inspiration. yet now a metamorphosis has come over the spirit of the days. the topic of the importance of desires, see you later overlooked, has without warning develop into a question of vigorous research and of fiery controversy the area over.
The reason behind this revival of curiosity is the hot viewpoint introduced ahead by way of Professor Bergson within the paper that is right here made obtainable to the English-reading public. this is often the concept we will discover the subconscious substratum of our mentality, the storehouse of our stories, via desires, for those thoughts are not at all inert, yet have, because it have been, a existence and function in their personal, and attempt to upward push into realization at any time when they get an opportunity, even into the semi-consciousness of a dream. to exploit Professor Bergson's impressive metaphor, our stories are packed away stressed like steam in a boiler and the dream is their break out valve.
That this can be greater than a trifling metaphor has been proved through Professor Freud and others of the Vienna university, who therapy instances of tension by way of inducing the sufferer to offer expression to the key anxieties and feelings which, unknown to him, were preying upon his brain. The clue to those annoying innovations is mostly got in goals or related states of secure recognition. based on the Freudians a dream constantly potential anything, yet by no means what it seems that to intend. it's symbolic and expresses wants or fears which we refuse normally to confess to cognizance, both simply because they're painful or simply because they're repugnant to our ethical nature. A watchman is stationed on the gate of attention to maintain them again, yet occasionally those unwelcome intruders slip previous him in hide.
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Er mokierte sich darüber, dass die Menschen ihre Götter so darstellten, wie sie selbst waren: Die dunkelhäutigen Äthiopier hatten dunkelhäutige Gottheiten, die Thraker, durchweg rothaarig und blauäugig, dachten sich ihre Götter mit roten Haaren und blauen Augen. Zugespitzt wird dieser Gedankengang in einer gewagten These: Wenn Pferde Bilder malen könnten, so würden sie ihre Götter als Pferde darstellen. Bei Xenophanes sind die Götter den Menschen weder an Körper noch an Geist ähnlich; um Atheismus handelt es sich hier nicht.
Hier bieten sich zwei Deutungsmöglichkeiten an. Zum einen kann es sein, dass die Römer in dieser Zeit nichts mehr mit dem König zu tun haben wollten; zu den Gründungsmythen der römischen Republik gehörte der Hass auf die Alleinherrscher. Zum anderen ist nicht auszuschließen, dass es sich bei dem Fund um eine Fälschung handelte oder dass zumindest dieser Verdacht aufkam; der Senat entledigte sich aller potentiellen Einflussnahme durch andere. theologia tripertita Eine Theologie im Sinne eines religiös-systematischen Überbaues gab es nicht.
Paradigmenwechsel im 19. Jh. Seit dem späten 19. Jahrhundert trat ein Paradigmenwechsel ein; statt der Mythen wurden zunehmend die Rituale als Schlüssel zum Verständnis von Religion verstanden. Die Reihe der Autoren reicht von Hermann Usener („Götternamen“, 1896) über die Cambridge Ritualists – zu nennen ist vor allem Jane Harrison – bis hin zu Martin P. Nilssons monumentaler „Geschichte der griechischen Religion“, 1941/1950 in der renommierten Reihe „Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaften“ in München publiziert; Nilsson sah die Mythen nur als Ergebnis der Rituale.