Diabetes Research: A Guide for Postgraduates by Bernard Tuch

By Bernard Tuch

Discusses long term issues and therapy options for diabetes, studies foreign realized societies and journals, and gives sensible perception into examine at the frontline.

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Islet-like cell clusters from fetal pig pancreas. Their average diameter is 100 µm. Fetal pancreatic tissue Fetal pancreatic tissue has advantages over that from adults because the proportion of endocrine tissue is greater and the capacity of the tissue to proliferate is greater. Its disadvantages are that the ß cell is immature and is unable to secrete insulin when exposed to glucose, and that the number of ß cells and hence the amount of insulin produced is less than in the adult tissue. Although the immune system in the fetus is not fully developed, this does not mean that fetal pancreatic tissue is not immunogenic.

Glucose taken up by the liver is stored as glycogen. This occurs either by the direct route (that is, glucose→glucose-6-phosphate→glucose-1phosphate→UDP glucose→glycogen) or by the indirect route by which glucose first undergoes breakdown to pyruvate or lactate and is then reformed into glucose via gluconeogenesis before being stored as glycogen. Most glycogen synthesis occurs via the indirect pathway. Why this apparently inefficient way of glycogen deposition is preferred is not clear. Regulation of glucose homeostasis Glucose levels are tightly regulated by a variety of mechanisms.

Outline of the chemical reactions that constitute the tricataoxylic acid (Krebs) cycle. 22 Diabetes Research The pentose phosphate shunt (hexose monophosphate shunt) The main functions of this pathway are to produce NADPH and essential pentoses such as D-ribose used in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. NADPH is an essential cofactor in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and steroids. Therefore, the pentose phosphate pathway is particularly active in liver, adipose tissue, adrenal and mammary glands.

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