By Hans-Georg Voss
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Dr. Kari Palonen ist Professor am division of Political technology der Universität Jyväskylä, Finnland.
Divided into components, this article brings jointly ancient and present literature detailing the advantages linked to puppy possession, and examines interactions with animals and the way vendors can emphasize the positives linked to possession and reduce any power negatives. Chapters specialise in either the mental and social advantages linked to human-animal interactions.
Additional info for Curiosity and Exploration. Theories and Results
Novelty-adjusting behavior: An individual is subjected to a stimulus and is confronted with the task of adaptation to the environment (all this happens without the individual's initiative). This is roughly comparable to Welker's (1961) concept of forced exploration. 2. Novelty-seeking behavior: The individual engages in active search for new experiences. Coping with these experiences has a self-motivating function in the sense of inherent motivation (Hunt, 1972). 3. Goal-oriented novelty-seeking behavior: Motivated by anticipated goals, individuals search for new experiences and explore their surroundings.
The authors agree that the exploratory process should be understood as a reaction to internal and external stimulus information and that it consists of information processing. This cognitive aspect is not given sufficient consideration in Berlyne's approach. Therefore; an exact analysis of the concepts used and clarification of existing inaccuracies still seem necessary. In Berlyne's theory, for example; the concept of conflict is defined only by contradictory reaction tendencies. In this limited definition; the term conflict certainly contradicts its normal usage.
Stimulus patterns have additional qualities that influence exploration and preference behavior aside from those defined using information theory (McCall &, Kagan, 1967). Here, Gestalt theory assumptions should be considered (Terwillinger, 1963) as well as subjective emotional qualities. 52 4. Methods I: Stimulus Determinants of Exploratory Behavior 3.