By Christopher Read
This publication indicates that the increase of the intelligentsia happened just before is generally suggestion, and that by means of 1922, instead of 1932, the underlying rules of the recent Soviet government's rules in the direction of tradition had already emerged, "proto-Stalinism" being more and more very important. a number of assets were used, together with Proletkul't, Moscow college and the rabfaky and the works of varied contributors comparable to Bagdanov, Lunacharsky, Andreev, Berdiaev and Chagall. Christopher learn has written "Religion, Revolution and the Russian Intelligentsia" and has produced a video "The Decline of Tsarism".
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Dr. Kari Palonen ist Professor am division of Political technological know-how der Universität Jyväskylä, Finnland.
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Additional info for Culture and Power in Revolutionary Russia: The Intelligentsia and the Transition from Tsarism to Communism
41 According to the information he presents, this had been confined to a tiny minority in the 1890s but had developed rapidly after 1905 and reached a peak around 1912. In the 1890s, he says, distrust of workers' newspapers and immersion in the gutter press were characteristic of most of the working class. 42 There were some exceptions. ,43 Kleinbort suggests that at this time it was the workers in more established factories who enjoyed a high level of culture, pointing to the Morozov factory in Tver' as an example.
On the other, intellectual creativity is seen as being heavily bound up in social processes rather than individual ones. Any attempt to explain the roots of any period of cultural ftowering must take both dimensions into account. It would be as foolish to interpret art as being above society, as it would be to see intellectual life as being wholly determined by social forces and the individual being no more than the instrument by which those impersonal forces express themselves. This may seem obvious to us today, but in Russia at the time there was bitter argument around the two positions.
52 A final piece of evidence presented by the author serves as a warning not to overestimate the penetration of working-dass cirdes achieved by such organisations. In one region of St Petersburg the library of the Metalworkers' Union (a union noted for its militancy and relatively highly conscious membership) was used by only 160 out of 1000 members in a given year and only 732 books were issued. 53 While the evidence presented by Kleinbort and others is unsatisfactory, particularly because it is unsystematic, it does all point in the same direction.