By Mark A. Runco
''Mark A. Runco's very good publication
Creativity: Theories and issues: study, improvement, and Practicewill be a technique to carry creativity again into relevance in psychology. This outstanding ebook sincerely units the level for these curious about creativity examine, for these eager to get into this attention-grabbing and intricate quarter, or just when you wish an up to date quantity at the box from one of many prime researchers within the area.'' --PsycCritiques (Oct 10, 2007, Vol fifty two, unencumber forty-one, Article eight)
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Extra info for Creativity. Research, Development, and Practice
The lack of creativity in the conventional stage is apparent when children rely on a literal stage of language use (avoiding metaphors and other creative expressions), when they produce only representational art (which is recognizably like some object), and when they slump in terms of their original thinking (Torrance 1968). Apparently, approximately half of the children at around age 9 experience this fourth-grade slump in original thinking. Slumps in creativity also have been described as reﬂections of U-shaped development.
This is unfortunate for their creativity because there is little latitude in literal interpretations. Additionally, creative ideas are often metaphorical, or found via analogical thinking (see Chapter 1), and these are antithetical to literal thinking. You either think literally or metaphorically. What is most obvious is that children in the conventional stage have great difﬁculty being creative. This makes perfect sense, given that conventionality is a kind of conformity, and creativity requires nonconformity.
Indd 31 11/3/2006 11:46:12 AM 32 1 COGNITION AND CREATIVIT Y Tactics depend on metacognition. In literal terms, metacognition is cognition about cognition. It reﬂects the individual’s thinking about his or her own thinking. Metacognition allows the individual to monitor his or her own actions. It reﬂects the intentional actions taken to enhance one’s own creativity. Tactics are highly practical precisely because they can be intentionally used. In fact, they must be used intentionally. By deﬁ nition the individual chooses which tactic to employ, and when, if in fact, any is to be employed.