Counterfactuals by David Lewis

By David Lewis

Counterfactuals is David Lewis' forceful presentation of and sustained argument for a specific view approximately propositions which convey opposite to truth conditionals, together with his well-known protection of realism approximately attainable worlds.

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Sample text

Merkmalen einer Grundgesamtheit Rekonstruktion von Deutungs- und Handlungsmustern genauer Erhebungs- und Auswertungsplan Plan plus relative Offenheit gegenüber Daten bzw. aus dem Feld „emergierenden“ Hypothesen Erkenntnisgegenstand sind Variablen Erkenntnisgegenstand sind Deutungs- und Handlungsmuster sowie Prozesslogiken statistisches Sample theoretisches Sampling deduktive Schließlogik Deduktion, Induktion, qualitative Induktion, Abduktion als Schließlogiken richtige Operationalisierung und Messung Gegenstandsangemessenheit In der Auseinandersetzung mit fallbezogenen Daten – im Unterschied zur Variablenorientierung in quantitativen Ansätzen – erarbeiten qualitative ForscherInnen schrittweise eine Theorie.

Dies sind typische auf Prozesse bezogene Fragen qualitativen Forschens (wobei die einzelnen Methoden unterschiedliche Schwerpunkte setzen, wie im Laufe von Kapitel II zu zeigen sein wird). Bestimmte qualitative Methoden wie das narrative Interview können soziale Prozesse besonders gut untersuchen, berücksichtigt dieses Verfahren doch Erzähldaten, welche per se Prozesslogiken implizieren. Erzählungen sind von ihrer Natur her auf die Darstellung eines Prozessverlaufs ausgerichtet, in den ein Akteur involviert ist; Situation, Selektion und Konstellationen werden fallbezogen dargestellt.

Insofern ist eine qualitative Einzelfallstudie keine Methode im strengen Sinne, sondern ein Verfahren, in welchem verschiedene Methoden kombiniert werden. Welche dies sind, hängt von der soziologischen Forschungsfrage ab. Interessiert der Fall mehr biografisch, sind mehr biografisch orientierte Methoden erforderlich; ist der Fall eine Organisation, sind neben Interviews vermutlich Dokumentenanalysen notwendig; ist der Fall ein alltägliches Geschehnis, werden neben Befragungen Beobachtungen zum Einsatz kommen.

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