Coronal Expansion and Solar Wind by A. J. Hundhausen

By A. J. Hundhausen

Little greater than ten years have handed considering spaceprobe-borne tools con­ clusively proven the life of the sunlight wind. those observations con­ firmed the fundamental validity of a theoretical version, first proposed by means of E. N. Parker, predicting a continual, quick growth of the sun corona. the following decade has visible an incredible progress in either the breadth and class of sunlight wind observations; the homes of the interplanetary plasma close to the orbit of the earth at the moment are identified in nice aspect. the idea of the coronal ex­ pansion has additionally been hugely refilled either within the feel of together with extra actual tactics, and of treating extra life like (time-dependent and non spheri­ cally-symmetric) coronal boundary stipulations. the current quantity is an try and synthesize the sun wind observations and coronal enlargement versions from this decade of swift improvement. the final word target is, after all, the translation of saw sun wind phenomena because the results of simple actual tactics happening within the coronal and interplanetary plasma and because the normal manifestations of sunlight houses and constructions. This technique implies an emphasis upon the "large-scale" positive aspects published by way of the observations. It calls for wide use of the innovations and strategies of fluid mechanics.

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Where A. = u rand u is the solar wind speed. In expressing this equivalence, u will be taken Chapter II. The Identification and Classification 22 as 400 km sec - \ near the mean solar wind speed deduced from most observations. 3) as LI = :r1nn(r)/. 5 I' X 10 12 cm and This definition and value differ from those of Burlaga and Ness by a factor of two resulting from the 1'-2 variation in the density. The density was chosen in defining '[ 1 because its dependence upon heliocentric distance can be more plausibly predicted than that of other spatially dependent solar wind parameters.

The observed magnetic polarity (i. 7]. The duration of a typical stream was five days; a characteristic time for the associated physical variations would be about one-half of this duration, or ,~60h. Thus '~'1' and high-speed streams fit into Class 2 of our classification scheme. They should be interpreted or modeled as part of a structural coronal expansion. An important clue to the nature of these streams was their apparent tendency to recur at intervals of '" 27 days. This tendency is emphasized in Fig.

This interpretation is reasonable as, of the possible wave modes in the corona, Alfven waves are weakly damped and could travel to 1 AU with little attenuation. Hydromagnetic Discontinuities The common occurrence of abrupt changes, or "discontinuities," in solar wind properties has already been mentioned in relation to Fig. 3. A small fraction of these changes have been shown to reflect the passage of shock fronts. Two examples of the far more common "directional discontinuity" are shown in parts (a) and (b) of Fig.

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