By Mark de Berg, Otfried Cheong, Marc van Kreveld, Mark Overmars

Computational geometry emerged from the sector of algorithms layout and research within the overdue Seventies. It has grown right into a famous self-discipline with its personal journals, meetings, and a wide neighborhood of energetic researchers. The good fortune of the sphere as a learn self-discipline can at the one hand be defined from the wonderful thing about the issues studied and the ideas received, and, nonetheless, by means of the various program domains---computer images, geographic details structures (GIS), robotics, and others---in which geometric algorithms play a primary role.

For many geometric difficulties the early algorithmic suggestions have been both gradual or obscure and enforce. lately a few new algorithmic strategies were built that more advantageous and simplified some of the earlier ways. during this textbook we have now attempted to make those smooth algorithmic options obtainable to a wide viewers. The booklet has been written as a textbook for a path in computational geometry, however it is additionally used for self examine.

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**Sample text**

The representation that we shall discuss supports these operations. It is called the doubly-connected edge list. A doubly-connected edge list contains a record for each face, edge, and vertex of the subdivision. Besides the geometric and topological information—to be described shortly—each record may also store additional information. For instance, if the subdivision represents a thematic map for vegetation, the doublyconnected edge list would store in each face record the type of vegetation of the corresponding region.

Every edge of the graph contributes one to the degree of exactly two vertices (its endpoints), so m is bounded by 2ne , where ne is the number of edges of the graph. Let’s bound ne in terms of n and I. By deﬁnition, nv , the number of vertices, is at most 2n + I. It is well known that in planar graphs ne = O(nv ), which proves our claim. But, for completeness, let us give the argument here. Every face of the planar graph is bounded by at least three edges—provided that there are at least three segments—and an edge can bound at most two different faces.

It can also come in handy to walk around a face the other way, so we also store a pointer to the previous edge. An edge usually bounds two faces, so we need two pairs of pointers for it. It is convenient to view the different sides of an edge as two distinct half-edges, so that we have a unique next half-edge and previous half-edge for every half-edge. This also means that a half-edge bounds only one face. The two half-edges we get for a given edge are called twins. Deﬁning the next half-edge of a given half-edge with respect to a counterclockwise traversal of a face induces an orientation on each half-edge: it is oriented such that the face that it bounds lies to its left for an observer walking along the edge.