By C. Howe, J. E. Coward, T. W. Fenger (auth.), Hein Fraenkael-Conrat, Robert R. Wagner (eds.)
The time turns out ripe for a severe compendium of that section of the organic universe we name viruses. Virology, as a technological know-how, having handed just recently via its descriptive section of naming and num bering, has most likely reached that degree at which rather few new actually new-viruses could be came across. prompted through the highbrow probes and methods of molecular biology, genetics, biochemical cytology, and excessive answer microscopy and spectroscopy, the sphere has skilled a real info explosion. Few critical makes an attempt were made to chronicle those occasions. This finished sequence, so one can include a few 6000 pages in a complete of approximately 18 volumes, represents a dedication by means of a wide team of lively investigators to research, digest, and expostulate at the nice mass of knowledge in relation to viruses, a lot of that is now amorphous and disjointed, and scattered all through a large literature. during this approach, we are hoping to put the total box in viewpoint, and to improve an invalua ble reference and sourcebook for researchers and scholars in any respect degrees. This sequence is designed as a continuum that may be entered at any place, yet which additionally offers a logical development of constructing evidence and built-in concepts.
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Additional info for Comprehensive Virology: Vol. 16: Virus-Host Interactions: Viral Invasion, Persistence, and Disease
Infectivity of influenza virus was increased following proteolytic digestion of virus and the cleavage of peptides from HAl, leaving phenylalanine as the terminal amino acid. This finding is consonant with the possibility that some sort of intramembranal proteolytic cleavage of HA occurs during viral morphogenesis in certain host cells (Scheid, 1978). This type of cleavage may be necessary for or, at the least, may enhance the infectivity of viral progeny. 26 Chapter 1 The morphology of penetration by orthomyxoviruses has been variously described.
During the first 30 min, there was rapid decrease in extracellular virus and increase in undegraded viral particles in lysosomes, in which uncoating presumably occurs. Virus was also found in phagocytic vacuoles in smaller numbers (Fig. 5) (Silverstein and Dales, 1968). Rotaviruses are biologically akin to reoviruses because of their double-stranded RNA core; they have a particular tropism for intes- Chapter I 18 40 b Fig. 4. Murine A9 cells infected with minute virus of mice. (a) Stages in viral uptake into coated vesicles by invagination (right and left) and formation of "autonomous" coated vesicles (center).
From Knutton (1977), by permission of the publisher. Bar = 200 nm. Changes in viral envelope structure which accompany fusion to erythrocyte membranes is less well understood. Electron microscopic studies (Knutton, 1977), using freeze-fracture and thin sectioning techniques, have shown that distinctive changes occur in the conformation )f the paramyxoviral envelope during the process of fusion to erythrocyte membranes (Fig. 8). "Ridges" free of IMP were seen to develop along with the incorporation of viral membranes into the cell surface.