By Marc A. Fritz MD, Leon Speroff MD
Tested for greater than thirty years as one of many world's most generally learn gynecology texts, scientific Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility is now in its 8th version. In a transparent, straightforward variety better by means of plentiful illustrations, algorithms, and tables, the ebook presents a whole rationalization of the feminine endocrine approach and its issues and provides functional counsel on evaluate and therapy of girl endocrine difficulties and infertility. significant sections conceal reproductive body structure, medical endocrinology, birth control and infertility. This version has a latest full-color design.A spouse web site comprises the absolutely searchable textual content, picture financial institution and hyperlinks to PubMed references.
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Additional info for Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, 8th Edition
But, the knockout models have oversimplified the roles of ER-a and ER-&bgr;, at least in breast tissue; their roles are dynamic and changing, not a simple expression of always one or the other. Two commonly used estrogens, 17&bgr;-estradiol and ethinyl estradiol (the estrogen component of steroid contraceptives) bind equally well to the alpha and beta estrogen receptors. However, ER-&bgr; plays a lesser role in those target tissues affected by these two estrogens, specifically the uterus, breast, bone, hypothalamus, and pituitary.
The relatively long duration of action exhibited by estradiol is due to the high-affinity state achieved by the receptor. TAF (transcriptional activation function) is the part of the receptor that activates gene transcription after binding to DNA. Ligand binding produces a conformational change that allows TAFs to accomplish their 37 38 tasks. TAF-1 can stimulate transcription in the absence of hormone when it is fused to DNA; however, it also promotes DNA binding in the intact receptor. TAF-2 is affected by the bound ligand, and the estrogen receptor depends on estrogen binding for full activity.
72 Estrogen Receptor Mechanism of Action Ligand-Dependent Nuclear Activity The steroid family receptors are predominantly in the nucleus even when not bound to a ligand, except for mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors where nuclear uptake depends on hormone binding. But the estrogen receptor does undergo what is called nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. The estrogen receptor can diffuse out of the nucleus and be rapidly transported back in or undergo metabolism. When this shuttling is impaired, receptors are more rapidly degraded.