By John S. Rigden
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Additional info for Building blocks of matter: a supplement to the Macmillan encyclopedia of physics
At this time, Fermilab’s new 500-GeV synchrotron was furnishing its first beams, and CERN’s new 400-GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) was nearing completion. 2 K. After constructing a special ring to test the new electron cooling and stochastic beam cooling techniques, CERN saw that the latter route was best suited for high-energy antiprotons, and in 1979 CERN decided to convert its SPS synchrotron into a proton-antiproton collider, building special experiments around the beam collision points.
Nature holds the quarks strongly inside the proton. One can never see a free quark but only a “jet” of pions and other particles produced from electron-proton collisions. Figure 1 shows an example of an electron-proton interaction. The single electron track is turned almost around by the vigor of the collision, and a jet of particles is produced by the quark that is struck. Features of a Colliding Beam Facility A colliding beam accelerator operates in the following way. One starts with a source of electrons (a hot wire in a vacuum under high voltage, for example) and protons (simply the nuclei of the atoms in a cylinder of hydrogen gas).
Emerging from the converter is a cloud of electrons, positrons, and photons, from which positrons are directed by magnetic lenses into another linac. For injection into the storage ring, the particles (eϩ or eϪ) are brought to high energy in one or more boosters (linac or synchrotron). Injection and Storage A storage ring is a special-purpose synchrotron. The particles circulate in a vacuum chamber placed in a magnetic guide field, with quadrupoles (magnetic lenses) keeping them close to the desired trajectory.