By David B. Burr, Matthew R. Allen
This e-book offers an outline of skeletal biology from the molecular point to the organ point, together with mobile keep watch over, interplay and reaction; adaptive responses to varied exterior stimuli; the interplay of the skeletal procedure with different metabolic methods within the physique; and the influence of assorted affliction strategies at the skeleton. The book also contains chapters that tackle how the skeleton should be evaluated by utilizing a number of imaging applied sciences, biomechanical checking out, histomorphometric research, and using genetically transformed animal models.
- Presents an in-depth assessment of skeletal biology from the molecular to the organ level
- Offers "refresher" point content material for clinicians or researchers outdoor their parts of expertise
- Boasts editors and lots of bankruptcy authors from Indiana and Purdue Universities, of the broadest and inner most courses in skeletal biology within the US; different bankruptcy authors contain clinician scientists from pharmaceutical businesses that observe the fundamentals of bone biology
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Additional info for Basic and Applied Bone Biology
1 Osteocytic Gene Expression Group Protein Expressed in Function 1 E11/podoplanin/gp38 Early, embedding osteocytes Dendrite formation CD44 Highly expressed in osteocytes compared to osteoblasts Hyaluronic acid receptor associated with E11 and linked to cytoskeleton Plastin/fimbrin All osteocytes Dendrite branching MMP-14 Matrix degradation Canaliculi formation PEX Early and late osteocytes Phosphate metabolism MEPE/OF45 Late osteoblasts through to osteocytes Inhibitor of bone formation and involved in phosphate metabolism DMP-1 Early and mature osteocytes Phosphate metabolism and mineralization FGF-23 Early and mature osteocytes Phosphate metabolism Dkk-1 Osteoblasts and early and mature osteocytes Inhibitor of bone formation Sclerostin Late osteocytes Inhibitor of bone formation RANKL Osteocytes Osteoclast differentiation and survival M-CSF Osteocytes Preosteoclast and osteoclast proliferation and survival factor OPG Osteocytes Inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation 2 3 4 The osteocyte phenotype is characterized by the expression of proteins related to their morphology and function, which may change at different stages of osteocyte development and maturation.
Accumulating evidence supports the notion that lining cells might play an important function in bone remodeling by retracting from the bone surface and creating a canopy over osteoclasts and osteoblasts in the BMU. This canopy of lining cells presumably encases bone marrow osteoblast precursors and is penetrated by blood vessels that provide hematopoietic osteoclast progenitors. Thus, the lining cell canopy, associated capillaries, osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts form a compartment separated from the rest of the marrow named the bone remodeling compartment (BRC; Fig.
Thus, osteoclast differentiation which involves activating the RANKL-RANK, M-CSF-M-CSF 1 receptor (CSF-1 R-c-Fms), and β-catenin-Wnt pathways, regulates the expression of genes required for osteoclast function. Mutation or deletion of genes encoding key signaling proteins in these pathways results in the failure of osteoclasts to properly form or function, which leads to the development of osteopetrosis, or high bone mass. Osteoclast Apoptosis After completing bone resorption, osteoclasts undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis.