By Robert B. Ewen
Meant as an higher point undergraduate and/pr graduate point textual content for classes on theories of character, character thought, character, or psychology of character. It offers an advent to the tips of crucial character theorist
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Theories of Personality, 6th Edition
It involves not only the introjection of parental standards, but also the resolution of the child’s Oedipus complex—a major Freudian construct that will be discussed in the following section. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY Psychosexual Stages To Freud, personality development consists of a series of psychosexual stages. Each stage is characterized by a particular erotogenic zone that serves as the primary source of pleasure. The Oral Stage. During the ﬁrst 12 to 18 months of life, the infant’s sexual desires center around the oral region (mouth, tongue, and lips).
Self-inﬂicted injuries are likely to be caused by unconscious guilt that creates a need for punishment. ” (Freud, 1901/1965c, p. 180). Brenner (1973/1974, p. 139) relates the case of a female patient who was driving her husband’s car in heavy trafﬁc, and stopped so suddenly that the car behind crashed into and crumpled one of the rear fenders. Her free associations indicated that this parapraxis was due to three related, unconscious motives: anger toward her husband because he mistreated her (expressed by smashing up his car), a desire to be punished for such unwifely hostility (which was certain to be satisﬁed once her husband learned of the accident), and powerful repressed sexual desires that her husband was unable to satisfy (which were symbolically gratiﬁed by having someone “bang into her tail”).
More often, however, the superego proves to be a harsh master—and another potential source of danger. It may become so perfectionistic and unrealistic that genuine achievements seem worthless. For example, a student who gives an excellent speech before a large group may feel little satisfaction because she made a few minor errors. … (Freud, 1923/1962, p. 44; 1933/1965b, p. ) Intense unconscious guilt can be the cause of illicit or self-destructive behavior, rather than the result. A person may commit a crime, suffer an injurious parapraxis, fail at work or school, or take a turn for the worse when praised by the psychoanalyst in order to gain relief by being punished (Freud, 1923/1962, pp.