Algorithms and data structures, Oberon version by Wirth N.

By Wirth N.

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Hooligan Hooligan Hooligan Hooligan Hooligan Since individual character comparisons now proceed from right to left, the following, slightly modified versions of of the predicates P, R and Q are more convenient. P(i, j) = Ak: j ≤ k < M : si-M+k = pk R(i) = P(i, 0) Q(i) = Ak: M ≤ k < i : ~R(k) The loop invariant has the form Q(i) & P(i, j). It is convenient to define k = i-M+j. Then the BM-algorithm can be formulated as follows. Wirth. Algorithms and Data Structures. Oberon version 46 WHILE (j > 0) & (i <= N) & (s[k-1] = p[j-1]) DO DEC(k); DEC(j) ELSIF (j > 0) & (i <= N) DO i := i + d[ORD(s[i-1])]; j := M; k := i; END The indices satisfy 0 ≤ j ≤ M, M ≤ i, and 0 < k ≤ i.

The example of sorting is moreover well suited for showing how a very significant gain in performance may be obtained by the development of sophisticated algorithms when obvious methods are readily available. Fig. 1. The sorting of an array The dependence of the choice of an algorithm on the structure of the data to be processed - an ubiquitous phenomenon - is so profound in the case of sorting that sorting methods are generally classified into two categories, namely, sorting of arrays and sorting of (sequential) files.

It is indeed necessary to protect the processes from dangerous interference. In general, all operations that alter the values of shared variables constitute potential pitfalls. A sufficient (but not always necessary) condition is that all shared variables be declared local to a module whose procedures are guaranteed to be executed under mutual exclusion. Such a module is called a monitor [1-7]. The mutual exclusion provision guarantees that at any time at most one process is actively engaged in executing a procedure of the monitor.

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