By Tomek Strzalkowski, Sanda Harabagiu
This new Springer quantity offers a complete and precise examine present methods to computerized query answering. the extent of presentation is acceptable for newbies to the sphere in addition to for pros wishing to check this region and/or to construct functional QA structures. The booklet can function a "how-to" instruction manual for IT practitioners and approach builders. it might even be used to educate graduate classes in computing device technological know-how, info technology and comparable disciplines.
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Extra resources for Advances in Open Domain Question Answering (Text, Speech and Language Technology)
An axiom is built to connect the quantity to its subject, redwood: all x1 x2 (_quantity(x1) & redwood_NN(x2) → of_in(x1, x2)) This is a weak axiom since the proximity of redwood to quantity in the answer text is not guaranteed. As mentioned for the complex nominal and coordinated conjunction axioms, any proof that uses these axioms should be penalized and ranked lower than those that do not. 3 Evaluation COGEX was implemented and integrated into PowerAnswer and tested on the TREC-2002 evaluation questions.
Figure 3 shows how an integrated answer type hierarchy enhances the recognition of the expected answer type. , Person). Concurrently, the ontology-based hierarchy (shown on the right in Figure 3) addresses domain-specific questions. If the concept asked about in the question is found in any of the ontologies, all its sub-concepts in the ontology become candidate answers. g. ” . The quality of the passages retrieved within the QA system is significantly improved through ontology-based query expansion.
The domain-specific concepts included in the query are selected based on their frequency of occurrence in the collection and relative semantic distance metrics. ” the queries used for passage retrieval are: without ontology information: (biological AND agents AND Qaeda) with ontology information: ((biological AND agents) OR (bacterial AND agent) OR (viral AND agent) OR (fungal AND agent) OR (toxic AND agent) OR ... OR botulism OR botulinum OR cholera OR ebola OR lassa OR encephalitis OR marburg OR ...